Summary of all PQ signature algorithms in second round of NIST post-quantum non-competition.

Scheme

Hard problem

Based on

Variation

NIST level

PK size

Sig size

TLS flight size

Keygen [us]

Keygen [cycles]

Sign [us]

Sign [cycles]

Verify [us]

Verify [cycles]

  

Dilithium

M-LWE

Fiat-Shamir with Aborts

II

1

1184

2044

5272

95.07

275965

419.394

1217751

96.264

279427

  

Dilithium

M-LWE

Fiat-Shamir with Aborts

III

2

1472

2701

6874

132.35

384254

446.675

1297007

134.873

391552

  

Dilithium

M-LWE

Fiat-Shamir with Aborts

IV

3

1760

3366

8492

173.056

502461

608.622

1767261

186.359

541071

  

Falcon

Performance results require update. 20% degradation expected

NTRU

 

Falcon- 512

1

897

618

2133

17546.930

50956091

4921.670

14292317

53.757

156020

Performance results need an update.

Falcon

Performance results require update. 20% degradation expected

NTRU

 

Falcon-1024

5

1793

1233

4259

50771.050

147438820

10753.276

31227271

109.211

317057

  

GeMSS

Multivariate

 

RedGeMSS128

1

3419406

48

3419502

        

GeMSS

Multivariate

 

RedGeMSS192

3

10683941

88

10684117

        

GeMSS

Multivariate

 

RedGeMSS256

5

29522264

104

29522472

        

LUOV

Multivariate

Unbalanced Oil and Vinegar

LUOV-48-49-242

2

7475

1741

10957

        

LUOV

Multivariate

Unbalanced Oil and Vinegar

LUOV-64-68-330

4

19968

3174

26316

        

LUOV

Multivariate

Unbalanced Oil and Vinegar

LUOV-80-86-399

5

40243

4831

49905

        

MQ-DSS

Multivariate

Fiat-Shamir

MQDSS-31-48

1

46

20854

41754

335.138

973105

9961.712

28928388

7147.983

20757407

  

MQ-DSS

Multivariate

Fiat-Shamir

MQDSS-31-64

4

64

43728

87520

794.117

2305930

32192.777

93487396

23858.611

69284923

  

Picnic

Symmetric

Fiat-Shamir

picnic2-L1-FS

1

32

13802

27636

6.505

18803

96854.000

281263071

51399.051

149261143

  

Picnic

Symmetric

Fiat-Shamir

picnic2-L3-FS

3

48

29750

59548

6.658

19235

263224.167

764401901

122277.760

355092795

  

Picnic

Symmetric

Fiat-Shamir

picnic2-L5-FS

5

64

54732

109528

8.221

23741

519799.500

1509497366

201163.533

584177124

  

qTESLA

R-LWE

Fiat-Shamir with Aborts

qTESLA-p-I

1

14880

2592

20064

855.686

2484624

323.216

938360

46.717

135569

  

qTESLA

R-LWE

Fiat-Shamir with Aborts

qTESLA-p-III

3

38432

5664

49760

1850.054

5372245

551.335

1600132

109.811

318753

  

Rainbow

Multivariate

Unbalanced Oil and Vinegar

Ib

1

151859

78

152015

        

Rainbow

Multivariate

Unbalanced Oil and Vinegar

IIIb

3

524390

112

524614

        

Rainbow

Multivariate

Unbalanced Oil and Vinegar

Vc

5

1723699

204

1724107

        

SPHINCS+

Symmetric

 

SPHINCS+-SHAKE256-128f-simple

1

32

16976

33984

3073.864

8926202

96137.344

279181494

3924.439

11396325

  

SPHINCS+

Symmetric

 

SPHINCS+-SHAKE256-192f-simple

3

48

35664

71376

4603.314

13367678

123279.960

358003648

6246.981

18140841

  

SPHINCS+

Symmetric

 

SPHINCS+-SHAKE256-256f-simple

5

64

49216

98496

11822.563

34332215

274977.182

798532967

6338.755

18407309